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Collection of recipes for making mead.


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Beer South on July 20, 19101 at 21:58:34:

Chapter 1: Basic Mead

Basic Mead

Source: Scott James (scojam@scojam.Auto-trol.COM)
Mead Lover's Digest #18, 16 October 1992

Ingredients:

10 lbs honey (clover honey, processed. From local super market chain)
1 can concentrated white grape juice
(condensed for reisling wine; from homebrew shop)
5 gal. water
5 grams dry "Pasteur Champagne yeast"

Procedure:

I let it ferment for 3 months in primary (70F), then bottled; priming
with 1 lb honey disolved in 4 cups boiling water.

Comments:

After six months we (college roomies) couldn't stand the wait and broke
into the stuff. Due to a bitter taste, we mixed most of it into a wine
cooler at a party (no flames, please). Just recently I tried one of the
two remaining 1 year old bottles. It was fantastic! Smooth and
sparkley! I have one bottle left, I'm saving it to share with that
special some one...

postscript: I tried the last 2 1/2 year old bottle -- Absolutely
pristine and crisp. Lots of bubbles like champagne (less priming honey
next time) and left a very subtle sweet taste on the lips. (She loved it
too :).


Chapter 1: Basic Mead

Traditional Mead and Maple Wine

Source: John Gorman (john@rsi.com)
Mead Lover's Digest #19, 17 October 1993

Ingredients:

5-6 qts honey or 7-8 qts maple syrup (bulk grade B dark)
5 tsp yeast nutrient
15 gm white wine yeast

Procedure:

Relax, don't worry, have some mead.

Hydrate the yeast and dissolve the yeast nutrient _separately_ in warm
water for 30 minutes. Mix the honey, maple syrup, or both with first
hot and then cold tap water in a large open container to almost 5
gallons at your target specific gravity. Splash or spray the water to
oxygenate the must so that the yeast will multiply. Pour the must into
a glass carboy, then pitch in the hydrated yeast and dissolved yeast
nutrient, dregs included.

Use a blow off tube for the first few days and then switch to a water
trap. In a month or so, the alcohol will kill the yeast before it runs
out of sugar. If not, and the mead turns out too dry, add some more
honey. It is ready to drink as soon as fermentation stops.

Maple wine becomes crystal clear with a beautiful sherry color within 60
days. Mead will sometimes clarify in 90 days. If you choose to bottle
the mead before it is clear, it will clarify in the bottles, leaving an
unsightly but delicious sediment.

Use Bentonite (clay) to quickly clarify a mead anytime after
fermentation stops. Boil 12 ounces of water in a saucepan. While
simmering, slowly sprinkle and stir in 5 tsp of bentonite. Cover and
let stand for 24 hours. Add during racking. It may be necessary to
rack and bentonite twice. The result is crystal clear.

Comments:

Traditional Meads and Maple Wines have an alcohol content of 12-15%.
Always use yeast nutrient and plenty of yeast for a strong start. The
fermentation will take off with a bang and the rapidly rising alcohol
content will quickly kill off any wild yeast. There is no need to
sulphite, heat, or boil the must. Why ruin good honey? I have never
had a bad batch of mead, except when I added acid.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 2: Methyglyn -- Mead with Spices

Citrus Mead

Source: Michael Tighe (tighe@inmet.camb.inmet.com)
Mead Lover's Digest #211, 21 September 1993

Ingredients:

10 lbs. honey
Citrus peel
sliced ginger
yeast

Procedure:

Make a basic mead with 2 lbs of honey per gallon. Use a clover honey or
a light wildflower honey for this recipe. Just before taking the must
off the boil, add a small amount of sliced ginger (about the size of
one's thumb for a 5-gallon batch) and then add the thinnest peel of
orange skin (about 3/4 of the skin of the orange). Be careful not to
get the white pith of the skin, it leaves a bitter/soapy after-taste.

Let it cool naturally about 3/4 hour (longer for larger batches) and
then remove the ginger and orange peel. Put in a carboy to cool, then
add yeast and let it go for three to six weeks (I usually let it go till
it starts to clear). Bottle, let sit for another week or two (to charge
the bottles) and then chill and serve.

Comments:

I've made this with lemon peel, grapefruit peel as well as orange peel,
and all taste great! If you use orange blossom honey, use orange peel
rather than some other citrus fruit - it really enhances the flavor!
Grapefruit is the strongest flavor, and the most likely to be
bitter/harsh, so use less of it than for orange or lemon. Leave some of
the ginger and the skin in the must during fermentation for stronger
flavor.

Use less ginger and less citrus skin for the first batches, and then
increase the amounts till you get the exact flavor you want. (One friend
used a pound of ginger per gallon! And he LIKED IT!)

The slow-cool method (rather than using a chiller) is supposed to be
part of what makes the flavor great.

I prefer mead yeasts if possible, but champagne or general purpose wine
yeast works fine.

This should create a slightly sweet mead with an alcohol content of
three or four percent.


Chapter 2: Methyglyn -- Mead with Spices

Earl Grey Metheglin

Source: J. Hunter Heinlen (STBLEZA@grove.iup.edu)
Based on a wine recipe by Tom Gressman
Mead Lovers Digest #171, 10 July 1993

Ingredients:

4 gal. grape juice
8-10 lbs. honey
4 largish oranges, sliced into eigths or sixteenths
other citrus fruits usable to taste
8-12 packets of Earl Gray tea
Your Favorite Wine or Mead Yeast (I use Montrachet)

Procedure:

Simmer juice and honey together until honey is dissolved (skimming
dross, etc.) If you normally boil, then, by all means, boil. When you
turn the heat down, add the oranges and tea in a clean hop bag or
something similar (I used a clean cotton sock). Let them steep in warm
must for five minutes. Transfer into carboy, let cool to a comfortably
warm temp, add yeast, and lock the carboy. Let ferment as a normal wine
at a cool temp.

Comments:

Needs to age at least 6 months. Should not need additional sugars or
yeast nutrient. Before cutting fruit, dip in sulfite solution or
similar to sanitize, and then rinse. Can ferment out fast (11-14 days).

I've tried rasberries with excellent results (though it was a bit
beerish until about six months), and cherries, apples, or grapefruit
with mixed results.


Chapter 2: Methyglyn -- Mead with Spices

Lavender Mead

Source: Leigh Ann Hussey (leighann@sybase.com)
Mead Lover's Digest #5, 1 October 1992

Ingredients (1 gallon):

4lb honey
1/4t citric acid
1 pint lavender flowers
1/2t tannin powder
1/2t champagne yeast
1t yeast nutrient

Procedure:

Boil together honey and 1/2gal water for 5 min. Put flowers with citric
acid and tannin in a gallon jug and pour the hot liquid over. Let cool
in a sink of cold water to room temperature, then add yeast and nutrient
and further water to make a gallon plus a pint. Add the airlock. Let
ferment 1 week, then strain out flowers. Set the lock on again and
ferment until all quiet. Bottle and age.

Second Ferment: 112 days

Based on H.E. Bravery's Rose Mead, from HOME BREWING WITHOUT FAILURES.


Chapter 2: Methyglyn -- Mead with Spices

Nutmeg Metheglin

Source: Ken Schramm, communicated by
Daniel F. McConnell (Daniel_F_McConnell@mailgw.surg.med.umich.edu)

Ingredients:

15 lb honey
28 gr whole nutmegs, freshly ground and infused in the boil
2, 3-inch cinnamon sticks
2T ascorbic acid
2T citric acid
1/2T yeast nutrient
1/2t Irish moss
water to make 5 gallons
10 gr Epernay II yeast
5 gr Pasteur Champagne yeast

Procedure:

Boil 35 minutes, chill to 80F, then pitch yeast. When fermentation is
complete, prime with 3/4 c dextrose.

Comments:

Use FRESHLY ground whole nutmeg.

This requires at least 2 years in the bottle to be at its best. After 2
years the mead is vinous and semi-dry, pale yelow in color with a good
sweet/acid balance. Cinnamon appears first in the nose, followed by the
nutmeg. There is an almost citrus aftertaste. Spices are balanced and
subtle rather then assertive.
Best served at 45-50F.

Specifics:

OG 1.104
FG 1.000


Chapter 2: Methyglyn -- Mead with Spices

Vanilla (Float like a butterfly, Sting like a
bee)

Source: Microburst Brewery (Forrest Cook (cook@stout.atd.ucar.edu)) and
Jon Corbet)
Mead Lover's Digest #123, 1 May 1993

Ingredients (7 Gallons):

9 Lbs of mesquite honey from Tempe, AZ
2 Tbsp gypsum to harden up the water a bit
1 4 ounce bottle of Madagascar vanilla extract

Procedure:

Vanilla extract added after the must cooled. I think the yeast was a
Canadian champagne yeast with a french name.

The unfermented beverage tasted great, it's been bubbling away for over
a month. I don't know how many vanilla beans are in one bottle, but I've
heard that they are rather potent.

Comments:

The inspiration for this recipe came from a mead that was poured at the
"Beer and Steer", a large outdoor homebrewers party held in Colorado
occasionally.

As this mead has aged, the vanilla flavor has become more pronounced.
For the next batch, we will probably increase the vanilla extract to 6
oz. At 9 months the flavor is still improving, I project that it will be
incredible at 18 months if there is any left :-)


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Apricot Melomel

Source: Mike Lindner (mpl@cmprime.att.com)
Mead Lover's Digest #190, 11 August 1993

Ingredients:

9 lbs. wildflower honey
4 oz. grated ginger root
1 1/2 t. gypsum
1 t. citric acid
1 T. yeast nutrient
1/2 t. irish moss
3 lbs. apricots
2 pkgs. Red Star Pasteur champagne yeast
5+ gal. Poland Springs bottled water (my tap water tastes AWFUL)

Procedure:

I basically used Papazian's "Barkshack Ginger Mead" recipe, with some
variations. Heated 2.5 gal. of water, added all ingredients up to the
fruit. Brought slowly to 210 degrees F., skimming off the foam (and
much of the ginger). Washed, pitted, and "juiced" the apricots to
produce 1 1/2 quarts of delicious juice - added to hot must and turned
off the heat for about 1/2 hour. Temperature was 190 degrees after
adding fruit - dropped to about 180 degrees. Ran the must through my
(new, counterflow) wort chiller - in 15 minutes brought the temperature
down to 80 degrees - and into 7 gallon glass carboy. Pitched yeast and
fit the carboy with a fermentation lock.

Comments:

The must looks like raw apple cider at this point - cloudy and
orangy/brown. I drank the must used for the gravity sample, and had a
hard time stopping myself from sampling more - it was sweet, with a
strong tartness of ripe apricots and undercurrents of ginger
complimenting it nicely - tastes much better than beer wort! I was
worried about too little fruit or too much ginger, but it seems very
well balanced at this point - I hope the finished product keeps the same
blend of tastes. Next morning: vigorous fermentation (3-5
bubbles/second) and about 1/2 inch of "kreusen" on the must. The smell
is heavenly - like concentrated apricots, a little bit yeasty. I plan
on racking to a secondary after a week, at which time I'll take another
sample for gravity and tasting.

Since then I have racked it off the fruit pulp and junk (after a week)
and, bottled (I debated letting it age longer in the carboy, but since
there was considerable head room, I didn't want problems with oxidation,
so I figured I'd let it age in the bottle). I primed with 3/4 cup corn
sugar dissolved in 2 cups of boiling water (let it cool before adding to
the mead, or course), and filled and capped 50 12 oz. beer bottles. The
mead at this point smells and tastes rather alcoholic, but if you can
get past that, there is a wonderful bouquet of apricot and ginger. It's
pretty undrinkable right now, but we'll see how it is in six months. I'm
not worried - I'm drinking homebrew.

As of 1/1/94, it smells heavenly, but still tastes a bit mouthwashy. I'm
still waiting for it to age.

Specifics:

O.G. 1.052
F.G. unknown (last estimated at 1.000, a couple of days before bottling.
Since my hydrometer only measures down to 1.004, I didn't bother with
any later readings.)


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Blackberry Mead

Source: Kirk Williams (williams@tsasa.lanl.gov)
Mead Lover's Digest #289, 10 April 1994

Ingredients (1 gallon):

1.5 lbs black honey
1 lb clover honey
1 lb blackberries (frozen)
pectic enzyme
ale yeast
bentonite

Procedure:

I used a black honey, a honey which bees cultivated from I believe
thistle (which grows in abundance in the fall monsoons here in Los
Alamos). Boiled for 20 minutes, skimming the surface. Added 1 lb
blackberries (used frozen), pectic enzyme, let ferment 2 weeks,
strained, let ferment some more, maybe for 2 months or so (high
fermenting temps, roughly 70+), added 1 lb of clover honey and fermented
to completion.

Comments:

I carbonated this, and it has a fantastic effect. The final color is a
reddish-rose tint, clear as a bell. Oh, 2 wks before bottling, I used
bentonite to help settle out the little bit of particulate left, and the
yeast.

It's fantastic now, I can't wait to pour a glass of this after an
ultimate practice this summer, and watch a sunset behind the Jemez... :)


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Blackberry Mead

Source: Chuck Stringer (cstringe@nickel.ucs.indiana.edu)
Mead Lover's Digest #289, 10 April 1994

Ingredients (2 gallons):

1 gallon ripe blackberries
4 1/2 lbs clover honey from Kroger (grocery)
acid blend and yeast nutrient according to package directions
Montrache wine yeast

Procedure:

We picked about a gallon of good ripe berries, rinsed and froze them.
Since the patch wasn't huge, we picked some every few days freezing a
pint or two at a time. During this time I started a simple mead with 2
1/2lbs of clover honey from the grocery and enough water to make a
gallon. I used Montrache wine yeast and added yeast nutrient and acid
blend according to the directions on the package. Fermentation stopped
after three weeks. We defrosted the berries in a small wastebasket I
use for a primary, then mashed them with a sterilized wine bottle. The
mead was then added. Two weeks later we racked the liquid off of the
fruit and into a carboy. Another 2 lbs of honey and enough water to
fill it up to 2 gallons. It was bottled a month later and now at eight
months, it's perfect. The only thing I would do differently is leave
out most of the acid blend.

Comments:

Up through six months of aging, it wasn't very good, but at eight it was
wonderful. It turned out like a really good red wine with a blackberry
nose and aftertaste.


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Blueberry-Jasmine Mead

Source: Alan Derr (aderr@BBN.COM)
Mead Lover's Digest #122, 1 May 1993

Ingredients:

10 lb clover honey (basic, grocery store variety)
2-12oz bags of frozen Maine wild blueberries
1/4 c jasmine tea (dry)
3 tsp. pectic enzyme
3 tsp. yeast nutrient
1 pkg. Red Star Champagne yeast

Procedure:

The honey, blueberries, pectic enzyme, and yeast nutrient were added to
about 2 gal. of water and raised and held at 170F for 25 minutes. I
squished the blueberries and strained them about halfway through the
heating process. This mixture was then poured into a carboy with water
to make a bit less than 5 gal. I then boiled about 2 cups of water,
steeped the tea for several minutes and strained it into the carboy.
When cool, I pitched the dry yeast (I know, I should know better than to
use dry yeast...).

OK. Time passes. Fermentation happens. It stops. I taste the result. The
jasmine was a bit too heavy, but I figure it will probably mellow with
age. The blueberry smell, flavor, and color was kind of underwhelming.
The main problem was, the resulting mead was thin-bodied and dry as a
bone. Now I want a fairly dry mead, but this WAY too much so.

So next, I heated:

2 lb clover honey
12oz of frozen wild blueberries
1 tsp. yeast nutrient
1 tsp. pectic enzyme

in a quart or so of water, squished and strained, and added this mixture
to the carboy.

Fermentation started again (slowly) and has continued for the past
couple of months. It is now crystal clear, has a beautiful purple color,
nice blueberry and jasmine aromas, and a very nice mouth feel (not to
mention a fairly high alcohol content!).

1st O.G.: 1.067
1st F.G.: 0.990 (before 2nd addition of honey)
2nd O.G.: 1.004 (after 2nd addition of honey)
2nd F.G.: 0.996


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Brew 4: Mead

Source: John E. Abraham (jabraham@acs6.acs.ucalgary.ca)
Mead Lover's Digest #143, 1 June 1993

Ingredients:

7 cloves (cracked)
2 sticks cinnamon (broken)
12 lbs clover honey
2 pckgs champagne yeast (saccharomyces beyanus)
1 L Just Pikt(tm) frozen florida grapefruit juice (NOT from concentrate)
2 tsp Diammonium phosphate (yeast nutrient)

Procedure:

Spices simmered for 20 min, honey and Nutrient added. Much later, full
boil for 15 minutes (partial boil for about 40 min), some scum and
spices skimmed off. Bunch of cups removed to brew vessel to make room
for grapefruit juice. Grapefruit juice added, held @ about 90degC for
15 min to pasteurise grapefruit juice. Thrown into brew vessel, water
added to 26L (about 5 gallons). At 75degF, SG 1.073, pitched yeast

Comments:

93 04 19 SG 1.054 man, this stuff is churning
93 04 27 Racked, SG 1.007, cloudy peachy colour, kind of like
honey&/or grapefruit. Lots of CO2. Champagne taste.
93 05 30 SG 0.996 clear, delicious smelling, a little strong
tasting, needs to smooth out a bit in the bottle.

The mead changed significantly (for the better) between 6 months and 8
months after it was first started.

The grapefruit is hardly noticeable at all, but the cinnamon and cloves
can be tasted.

The fermentation speed was very high - the grapefruit probably provided
a good pH and additional nutrients.


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Cran of Creation

Source: Jay Hersh (hersh@x.org)
Mead Lover's Digest #244, 12 December 1993

Ingredients (3 gallons):

6 lbs Raw Clover Honey (from Haber Apiary in Troy, NY)
1 tsp water crystals
1 tsp yeast nutrient
3/4 oz Cascade leaf hops
Irish Moss
24 oz crushed cranberries (crushed in blender)
1 pkg red Star Champagne Yeast

Procedure:

This was one of my earlier mead concoctions. I used to boil down the
water
crystals, yeast nutrient, hops and irish moss first, to make a sort of
perservative like base liquid, then add the honey to this and steep at
180F for
45 minutes (along with the fruit). This would get added to enough cold
water to
bring the mixture to 95F or so and I'd add the yeast and let it ferment.

Comments:

This concoction was OK, but strongly on the dry side, and the
cranberries
make it pretty tart.

Specifics:

OG 1.068 FG 0.997


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Cranberry Mead

Source: John (The Coyote) Wyllie (SLK6P@cc.usu.edu)
Mead Lover's Digest #243, 9 December 1993

Ingredients (2 gallons):

1 gal Oceanspray cranberry juice. (good jug too!)
5 lb vernal honey (clover-alphalpha...)
Palmful raisins, chopped
1 tsp yeast nutrient
1/2 tsp acid blend
Champagne yeas.

Procedure:

Heat the honey with some water (1:1 is fine) Pasteurize or boil. I
campden treated the juice. Shouldn't really need it though. Add the
rest of the goods, divide the juice between two gallon jugs. Divide
honey mixture. Pitch yeast, bring up to a full gallon. (10/17/92)

I fermented one in a closet upstairs (60's) and one in the basement at
lower 50's. They both fermented forever. In January I transfered to a
secondary- 1.010. Added 2 cups/gallon dissolved corn sugar to top it
up. The upstairs one was bottled 1/31. It was and is still cloudy.
The downstairs one was bottled 7/5. It was clearer, sweet and strong.
It did finally clear. and was significantly better than the first.

Comments:

Some of this broth lasted a full year. The last bottle disappeared with
my folks at x-mas, celebrating their survival of the Pasadena fires. It
is very sweet, and tasty. Nicely balanced. It has become lightly
carbonated- even though it's corked. Nice touch though. Light red/orange
color, clear, fruity nose. It has a full body, almost syrupy, and quite
strong!

I have a bunch of cranberries in the freezer, and have considered
(planned)
on doing a batch again, with fresh cranberries. Chop up 24 oz's frozen
cranberries (cuisinart), and mix in with the honey mixture. Pasteurize.
Substitute for the cranberry juice. Perhaps up the honey by a pound or
2.


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Crazy-Good Mead

Source: Dave Polaschek (DaveP@county.lmt.mn.org)
Mead Lover's Digest #230, 26 October 1993

Ingredients:

10 lbs light clover honey
2 lbs blueberries (I used frozen)
1 gallon apple cider (pasteurized)
1/2 oz Saaz hops
yeast nutrient to instructions on package
1 packs champagne yeast (I used WYeast on this one)

Procedure:

Bring 2.5-3 gallons of water to a boil. Add honey, bring to a boil
again. Toss in the yeast nutrient and hops and boil for about a half-
hour, skimming off any scum that forms on the surface during the boil.
Put berries into a hop-boiling bag. Lower heat to a very low simmer,
and toss in the berries, mashing the bag around to break them up some.
Continue to steep the fruit for about 10-15 minutes while you get the
fermenter ready. Put the gallon of apple cider into the fermenter when
the boil is about done, and then add the hot wort. Add water to bring
the total up to 5 gallons. Let cool, and pitch yeast.

When the gravity has dropped below 0.980, bottle and wait. 3 months
wait makes for eminently drinkable stuff, but the longer you can wait,
the better. Final color is a light delicate pink, not unlike some white
zins, so you may want to store bottles on their head and then freeze the
neck to get the sediment out of the bottles, but I've just been very
careful decanting into glasses with pretty good results.

Specifics:

SG: 1.075
FG: 0.965!
Alcohol content: 23 proof

Comments:

This is something I whipped up last winter, and I sure wish more of it
had survived until now (I'm down to my last 3 bottles, and it just keeps
getting better).


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Grapefruit Melomel

Source: John (The Coyote) Wyllie (SLK6P@cc.usu.edu)
Mead Lover's Digest #214, 24 September 1993

Ingredients:

7 lb Clover Honey
6 (med) grapefruit
1 Tbsp fresh grated ginger
Dash of acid blend. (Worth doing an acid test. Didn't have a kit then)
1/2 oz cascade hops used as finishing hops in a light ale
Pectic Enzyme (tbsp) and sparkalloid added to secondary
Champagne yeast

Procedure:

Mix honey into a couple gallons heated water. Bring to a boil. Skim
scum. Grate peel from grapefruits and juice them. Add peel, hops and
acid blend to boil. Add juice when heat goes off. Cool by adding cold
water. Pitch yeast. Ferment for a month. Rack to secondary. Rack
again, and bottle with 3/4 cup corn sugar.

Comments:

It was a Grapefruit Melomel Mead brewed in Feb, '92. I didn't take
gravity readings, but it was a pretty light mead. It was bottled maybe
2 or 3 months later. After a month or two in the bottle it had
carbonated, but smelled like vomit. Had a sour citrusy aftertaste. Not
pleasant.

I put it away for a LONG time, and a year later it was clear, sparkling,
and smelled nicely citrus. The puky smell had cleared. It did taste
like grapefruit, but more gently so. It may have been a bit too acid.
A nice champagne-like presentation. You could even make raisin
submarines in it. (if you've never tried this, drop a wrinkly raisin in
a glass of clear sparkly mead, and be amazed!!! Fun for the whole
family! Up and Down!) The take home lesson here was- Age is a GOOD
THING. Be patient! Some meads are very harsh young, but can age
beautifully, and become quite enjoyable.


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Jamaica Blue Mead

Source: Guy McConnell (guym@exabyte.com)

Ingredients:

6 lb. Cover Honey
1 lb. Orange Blossom Honey
1.5 lb. Corn Sugar
2 oz. Fresh, minced Ginger Root
3 tsp. Ground Cinnamon
3 tsp. Yeast Extract
1 gal. Fresh Blueberries
2 ea. Lemons, halved
WYeast #1214 Belgian Ale Yeast
0.5 cup Orange Blossom Honey (bottling)

Procedure:

Put honey, corn sugar, and yeast extract in brewpot with water. Simmer
for 10 minutes, skimming foam with kitchen strainer. Add ginger root
and simmer for 10 more minutes without skimming. Remove from heat,
squeeze in lemons, and throw into brewpot. Cover and let stand for 15
minutes. Strain out lemon halves and ginger, add blueberries, chill,
pour mixture (blueberries and all) into primary fermenter, and pitch
yeast. After 7 days, rack off of fruit into secondary and age for 1 - 2
months. When fermentation is complete, prepare a "tea" by simmering
cinnamon and honey in water for 15 minutes in a covered pot. Cool, add
to bottling bucket, and quietly siphon in must. Bottle and age for a
couple of months or so.

Comments:

This makes a nice, light, sparkling beverage that is a brilliantly clear
rose-purple color. The flavor is of blueberries kissed with cinnamon.
A wonderful change of pace for a summer drink at about 5% alcohol by
weight.

Specifics:
O.G. 1.050
F.G. 1.005


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

MeadBerry Mead

Source: RON.admin@admin.creol.ucf.edu (RON)
From: Mead Lover's Digest #269 22 February 1994

Ingredients:

1/2 gal Motts apple juice
1/2 gal Fresh Apple Cider
10 lbs Clover Honey
5 tsp yeast nutrient
3 tsp acid blend
1 - 12 oz pkg frozen Blueberries
1 - 12 oz pkg frozen Raspberries
2- 12 oz pkg frozen Blackberries
1 lb fresh Strawberries
1 lb+ fresh Cherries - pitted
juice of 1 orange
1/4 orange peel (boil)
1/4 orange peel (fin)

Procedure:

Macerated fruit and cider in blender, boiled everything for 45 min,
added yeast nutrient and acid blend last 5 min. Ice bath for around 30
min. Poured the wort (must?) through cheese cloth and ran boiling water
through it and squeezed the remainder out. Used a M&F Ale yeast starter.
4 weeks racked - tasted like cough syrup, acidic. 8 weeks bottled with
1 cup same Clover Honey above to 4.1 gal of secondary - had a dry fruity
port taste. 6 months later - low carbonation, fruity, very tasty. 1
year - carbonation varies from bottle to bottle, very tasty has a
Lindermans Framboise Lambic (sp?) taste and carbonation. 2 years &
2months later had last one. Carbonation was little low for my liking
but a very good after dinner mead with desert. A must to repeat, no pun
intended.

Specifics:

OG: 1.070
FG: 1.000


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Mulberry Mead

Source: Thomas Manteufel (thomas@ct.med.ge.com)
Mead Lover's Digest #148, 6 June 1993

Ingredients (1 gallon):

2# wildflower honey
12 ozs. frozen mulberries
water up to 1 gallon
Red Star Montrachet yeast

Procedure:

Pasturized and skimmed honey at 170F for 1/2 hour. Added frozen
mulberries at end of heating. Pitched with rehydrated Red Star
Montrachet yeast. Used NO nutriment.

Racked to secondary after 9 days, as berries were beginning to bleach.
Bottled when 2 months old.

Comments:

This mead recently (March 20) won a first in the mead/cider category of
the Brewer's Of South Suburbia (south suburban Chicago) regional
homebrew competition. It's a simple recipe that lends itself well to
many different melomels. This was a medium mead. If I want a sweeter
taste, I use 3 pounds of honey, and a pound of fruit, varying according
to the fruit's strength.

Time in bottle when judged: 6 months

Judges comments:
nice honey aroma, with a little solventy (higher alcohol) finish
[may be due to not having aged enough]
beautiful color [a red, deeper than a ros'e] nice honey flavor. metallic
finish [could be due to a rust spot in the
brew kettle or our famous Waukesha mineral water] score 37/50
nice fruit nose
nice appearance
nice honey and fruit balance
score 40/50

Specifics:

IG - 1.082
FG - 1.002


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Mulberry Mead (Morat)

Source: John (The Coyote) Wyllie (SLK6P@cc.usu.edu)

Ingredients:

6 lb fresh picked mulberries
5 lb Snowberry honey
3 lb corn sugar
2 cups Raisins- chopped
2 tsp Na-bisulfate
Pris-de-Mouse yeast

Procedure:

Pick through berries, remove leaves, grubs...etc. Process berries. Add
HOT water to honey to dissolve. Add sugar and processed raisins. Mix
processed berries and sugar mix. Add Na-bisulfate (campden), mix well
and leave overnight. Next day, add water to bring up to 5 gallons.
Pitch yeast (7/1/93). Racked a couple of times. Bottled on 9/2/93 with
3/4 cup corn and demererra sugar (mixed).

Comments:

My girlfriend has a tree outside her house. Birds eat the fallen
berries, become intoxicated and get hit in the road. So I thought I
should remove some of the berries, save a couple birds. They were deep
purple to red. The mead tasted good at bottling. It slowly became
sparkling, and now is like a light sparkling burgundy. Quite fruity,
but has a wine-like quality. It is fairly dry, but does have a berry-
sweetness I find very enjoyable. It cleared beautifully, and has a deep
red color, but easy to see through. The thing that surprised me was how
good it was young. I rarely have meads taste GOOD young (see grapefruit
recipe!), but this one did!

Specifics:

OG: 1.070
FG: 0.990


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Peach Melomel

Source: John (The Coyote) Wyllie (SLK6P@cc.usu.edu)
Mead Lover's Digest #214, 24 September 1993

Ingredients:

3/4 bushel of fresh peaches
6 lb. Clover honey
6 lb. corn sugar
2-1/2 tsp. Pectic enzyme
2 0z. Acid blend
1/2 tsp. Tannin
1 oz. yeast nutrient
Epernay yeast

Procedure:

Wash and pit peaches. Remove "bad" fruit. Chop into pieces and freeze
overnight packed in zip lock bags. Thaw. Pasteurize the honey/sugar in
a few gallons of water. Add pectic enzyme, acid blend, tannin,
nutrient. Skim any scum. Turn off heat, and add peaches. Cool and
pour into a bucket primary (ideally w/ a spigot). Pitch yeast starter.
Ferment. Rack off sediment after primary subsides. Smelled very
sulfury. Addition of campden will help stabilize the color of the
peaches. Add a day before pitching yeast. I lost a fair bit of volume
through rackings, but it ended up very clear, and "peachy" in color.

Comments:

I made one of these last year, and it was VERY yummy after 6 months.
There are now 2 bottles left and it IS a year old (peach wine is better
not aged too long, I've heard). I started a new one, but juiced the
peaches. This left me with 2.5 gal nicely fermented peach wine, and 2.5
gal of alcoholic pulp! So I recommend chopping and freezing. Should be
adequate. The first one became very dry, and benefited from sweetening
at bottling. No carbonation resulted. I'm sure the yeast had pooped
out by then. It was pretty strong! Nice peach color, and aroma. Good
dessert wine.

Specifics:

OG: 1.112
FG: 0.990


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Peach Mead

Source: Gordon Olson (glo@lanl.gov)
Mead Lover's Digest #195, 16 August 1993

Ingredients:

12 pounds of blended clover honey
1/2 tsp. Irish moss
11 pounds of pitted, pureed, peaches
2 pkgs. Red Star Pris de Mousse yeast

Procedure:

Boil honey and irish moss with 2.5 gallons of water for 15 minutes.
Turn off the heat, and add the peaches. Soak at 160 F for 15 minutes to
pasteurize. Then I cooled the mead with a counterflow wort chiller. (I
am switchingto the immersion-type of wort chiller.) Because of the high
gravity and the fact that tiny pieces of peach were sucked into the wort
chiller, this took a long time. After the initial run off, I stirred hot
water into the peach mush in my kettle and drained that water through
the wort chiller.

2 Redstar Prise de Mousse yeast packages were rehydrated in hot water
and added to the 69 F mead. With all the nutrients from the peaches, it
fermented fast, I actually had some peach pieces blown out through the
blow-off tube attached to the 5 gallon carboy.

After two weeks I added 2 tsp. of pectic enzymes. Unfortunately, a thick
layer of sediment formed and a thick layer of floating peach pieces
formed. Only a band in the middle was relatively clear. Agitating, by
spinning the carboy didn't seem to help, so, after three weeks, I
siphoned out this middle 3 gallons into a clean carboy (SG=0.994). In
retrospect, what I should have done was finish fermenting this mead in a
3 gallon carboy. Since I didn't have one at the time, I boiled 3 pounds
of honey in 1.5 gallons of water and topped up the 5 gallon carboy.

Two months after starting, I racked the mead into a clean carboy
(SG=0.994, again). I added 5 Stabilizing Tablets to kill off the yeast
and two pounds of boiled honey to sweeten the mead.

Three months after starting, I added 2 tablespoons of polyclar in 1/2
cup of hot water. This clarified the mead and I bottled three days
later. It was bottled straight from the carboy with nothing added.

Comments:

At the AHA's national competition (1993) in Portland, OR, my peach mead
was given first place in the non-traditional mead category. The first
place in the traditional category was from Canada and used a very tasty
and aromatic wild flower honey. The brewer of the traditional mead was
given the Mead Maker of the Year award.

Things I would do differently:
1) Next time I will pasteurize rather than boil the honey. (Actually,
this was the last time I boiled honey for a mead.) 2) Use local raw,
unfilterred honey rather than store bought blended clover honey. (to
enhance honey aromas and flavors) 3) Freeze the pureed peaches first to
break up the cells and improve utilitation of the peach sugars and
flavors. 4) Try harder to keep the peach pieces out of the primary. 5)
Use a less attenuative yeast. Prise de Mousse has consistently given me
dry meads. Lalvin's K1V-1116 wine yeast gives me meads with SG > 1.004
that seem less alcholic. So I am switching to it as my primary mead
yeast.

The main comments/criticisms that I received from the judges were that
the mead was alcoholic (higher alcohols present) and that the peach and
honey aromas and flavors were delicate or understated. But it was very
clean, no off flavors. These comments guided, but did not completely
determine my list of changes for next time.

I hope you have enjoyed the saga of this mead. A less detailed summary
should appear in the next Zymurgy.


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Pear/ginger melomel/metheglin

Source: Eric Urquhart (eurquhar@sfu.ca)
Mead Lover's Digest #11, 8 October 1992

Ingredients (2 gallons):

5 lbs pears, seeds and flower end removed
5 lbs raw new honey (wildflower/raspberry/blackberrry blend)
3 oz. finely ground fresh young ginger (more lemony than mature ginger)
1 primed package Wyeast belgian #1214
1/2 tsp. pure ascorbic acid (to keep the pears from going brown and
because it tastes like lemons)
1/2 tsp. Difco yeast nitrogen base (yeast nutrient)
16 cups water

Procedure:

Everything but the yeast nitrogen base was put into a big pot and
brought up slowly to 200 F and kept there for 20 minutes to pasteurize
and extract the ginger flavour and allowed to cool down naturally (about
2 - 3 hours). Next time, I'll extract the same ginger pulp repeatedly
with boiling water a few times to get more ginger flavour out and add as
part of the water used (the ginger flavour is only sparingly soluble in
water). YIELD: about 2 gallons in the primary.

...p.s. It was bubbling like crazy 24 hours later and the banana was
evident when I opened the yeast envelope. This weekend ginger beer!

Comments:

It turned out reasonably well. Slight bitter taste but nice
ginger/fruit flavour when finished. It was abused so if racked at the
proper times etc. it likely would have been better. The Belgian yeast
fermented out well with a high % alcohol and likely would taste better
if more residual sugar remained. This formula yields a very good young
mead as when 3 months old (after the second racking). It was very tasty
but quite sweet. Off-flavours seem to be reduced and fruit flavours
maintained when using this yeast if the fermented product is stored at a
cool (below 60 F) temperature once the initial rapid fermentation is
complete.

Specifics:
OG: 1.100
FG: ~1.020


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Plum Melomel

Source: Roger Locniskar (loc@bostech.com)
Mead Lover's Digest #11, 8 October 1992

Ingredients:

7.5lbs Citrus Honey (Orange Blossom is the best or whatever)
25-30lbs Plums (halved and pitted is best, but at least halved)
3-4 tsp. Yeast Nutrient
1 pkg Pectic Enzyme
1 pkg Champagne Yeast
Acid Blend (you'll need an Acid Testing Kit too)

Procedure:

The Day Before:
Start the yeast the day before you start the mead using a standard yeast
starter of orange juice, water, sugar and yeast nutrient.

The Day of:
Make sure the plums are at room temp. Do not heat them to do this, just
let them come up to room temp naturally. Dissolve the honey in 2
gallons of water, do not let it boil, just get the water hot enough to
dissolve the honey. Combine the plums, honey water, yeast nutrient,
pectic enzyme and 2 more gallons of water in a large open primary
fermenter. Mix well. The original gravity reading should be between
1.080 and 1.090. Add the yeast, stir it up, and cover lightly. Stir
the fruit down twice a day.

Some Days Later:
Check the gravity after about 5 days. When the gravity reaches 1.020,
rack and press the must into a sulfited glass secondary fermenter and
add 1/2 camden tablet per gallon of must to prevent oxidation. Fit a
fermentation lock on the bottle and let it rip.

When the gravity reaches 1.000 rack again into a clean sulfited carboy,
again adding 1/2 camden tablet per gallon for the same reason.

When the fermentation stops, let it sit for a few days to let the lees
settle out. Rack into a clean sulfited carboy adding 1 camden tablet
per gallon of product and fine with a Bentonite mixture. Let this sit
for 10 days. Rack the final product (leaving the lees behind as usual)
into a clean sulfited carboy and let bulk age for three months. Test
the acid level at this point using an acid testing kit and adjust the
acid to a level of .55. The kit will tell you given what your acid
level is at how much to add. If you have a spare frig you can put the
carboy in, the last month of the bulk age put the mead in the frig to
chill proof it.

Bottling:
Filter the mead with fine filters and bottle. Let bottle age for at
least 6 months (1 year is better). Enjoy.

Comments:
If you want the end product to be sweeter you can add more honey. But do
not get the original gravity above 1.100 or you will have problems with
stuck fermentation or sluggish fermentation. You can add as much as
50lbs of plums if you want this to be _really_ plummy. The higher the
gravity the longer the product will need to bottle age.

If you can freeze the plums for a couple of weeks before you use them
you'll get a better juice yield because freezing breaks down the cell
walls.


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Raspberry Melomel

Source: Mark A Fryling (fryling@magnus.acs.ohio-state.edu)
Mead Lovers Digest #171, 10 July 1993

Ingredients:

10-12 lbs of light honey
4-5 gal good brewing water
15 lbs of Black Rasberries
1.25tsp yeast nutrient
2 pkgs (10g) Lalvin #71B-1122 S. Cerevisiae Narbonne

Procedure:

Before brewing, pick, wash and freeze the fruit you are going to use.
The freezing makes sugars more accessible. I think 10-15 lbs is a good
amount for 5 gal of mead. Take the fruit out of the freezer the morning
before you brew to thaw. I find it particularly convenient to put the
fruit into large ziploc freezer bags about 1/3 to 1/2 full. That way you
can crush the fruit in the bags after it's thawed and avoid a mess.

Dissolve honey into 2-3 gallons of water and bring to a boil. Boil 20
min or so. Cool to appx. 70 F and pour into primary fermenter. Dilute
to 5gal and add 1.25 tsp yeast energizer (pectic enzyme and acid blend
are optional). Pitch a good wine yeast. I have had very good luck with
Lalvin 71B-1122 S. cerevisiae. It's an epernay type yeast that ferments
quickly and leaves just a bit of residual sweetness.

When the fermentation of the honey must is nearly complete, rack it onto
the thawed and crushed berries in a second bucket type fermenter. Allow
the fermentation to continue to completion and rack the melomel off the
fruit pulp and yeast into a glass carboy (tertiary?).

When the melomel is clear and no longer bubbling, bottle it. If the
S.G. has gone all the way down to 1.000 or below, you probably have not
exceeded the yeast's alcohol tolerance and carbonation is an option. I
primed this batch with 3/4 cup of corn sugar and it is now lightly
carbonated after about 4 months in the bottle.

Comments:

Because the alcohol content of the honey must is already fairly high and
there is an enormous yeast population, I have found that pasteurization
of the fruit is unnecessary. My experience is that this is the most
satisfactory way to make melomels. I think that one preserves more of
the fruit aroma and flavor by fermenting the honey first and then adding
that to the fruit. I'm pretty sure of this because we did two 5 gal
batches of this last year which were identical except one batch had the
fruit added to the hot must just after the boil for pasteurization and
the other was done as above. Even though both are great, side by side
comparison reveals more berry aroma in the batch where the fruit was
added after the honey was fermented.

This is really a pretty generic Melomel recipe. Just substitute your
favorite fruit to make whatever you like. I will say however, that
after trying strawberry, mulberry (Morat), peach, kiwi, apple (Cyser),
and black rasberry melomels, the black rasberry is the favorite of
myself and my friends and family. The resulting drink is an intense
magenta color, with strong rasberry aroma and flavor. Absolutely
wonderful stuff! Would also make a very fine ice-brandy though I would
never do something so dangerous and irresponsible. 8*)

Enjoy!


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Royal Colors Melomel

Source: Dave Suda (suda@vrg.toronto.edu)

Ingredients (7 gal):

19 lbs. alfalfa or other lightly flavored honey
10 pints blueberries
4oz lemon juice
10g Flor Sherry yeast

Procedure:

Heat 5gal of water to 160F (70C), add the honey, mashed blueberries, and
lemon juice. Raise the must to 180F (80C), hold for 15min, and chill.
Rehydrate the yeast in 1 cup of 90F (35C) water for 5 min. Divide the
must into two 4-gallon food grade plastic buckets and pitch half the
yeast in each. Ferment for one week and rack off the fruit into a 5gal
carboy and two 1-gallon jugs. Allow to ferment to completion and clear
(in my case this took 8 months), racking every 4 months. Bottle with
1/2 cup corn sugar per 5 gal.

Comments:

This is a semi-dry blueberry melomel that took a first place at the 1992
Mazer Cup. The mead is a beautiful purple with an intense blueberry
aroma when young. As it ages, the fruit aroma becomes more brandy-like.

Specifics:
OG: 1.099
FG: 1.009


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Strawberry Melomel

Source: Dick Dunn (rcd@raven.eklektix.com)
Mead Lovers Digest #171, 10 July 1993

Ingredients:

6 lb clover honey
4 lb alfalfa honey
12 lb strawberries
Red Star Prise de Mousse yeast
4 oz dextrose (bottling)

Procedure:

Start the yeast in about a pint of water with a few tablespoons of
dextrose. Be sure the starter solution and jar are sterile, and at 70-
80F before adding yeast. This yeast should start quickly--a few hours
at most.

Clean and hull the strawberries; chop into a few pieces. (Don't crush
them or you'll have an impossible mess at racking.) Put them into a
sanitized plastic-pail primary.

Bring 4 gallons of water to a full boil. Remove from heat and
immediately add the honey; stir thoroughly. (This will sterilize the
honey without cooking the flavor out of it.) Cool to about 150-160F,
pour over the berries in the primary fermenter. Cool to pitching
temperature (below 80F) and add yeast starter. Stir thoroughly to mix
and aerate.

Every day or two, push the floating mass of strawberries down into the
fermenting mead (the equivalent of a winemaker's "punching down the
cap").

After the strawberries have become very pale--probably ten days or more-
- strain out as much of the strawberry mass as possible, then rack into
a glass carboy. Be prepared for the racking tube to clog. (A stainless
"Chore Boy" over the bottom end of the tube will help.)

Ferment to completion. If necessary, fine with gelatin. Prime with the
4 oz (by weight) of dextrose dissolved in water; bottle using crown
caps.

Comments:

12 lb strawberries in a 5-gallon batch seemed like a lot at first, but
it has worked out right. This gives a pronounced strawberry nose and
taste, nothing subtle about it. You could use as much as 15 lb (3
lb/gallon) fruit. I used frozen strawberries...naturally, these are
mushier and more likely to create pulp that's hard to manage in the
primary, but they also release juice more readily.

The blend of honey was intended to be such as not to mask the strawberry
flavor. This turned out not to be an issue; you could shift the balance
more toward the alfalfa or other stronger honey.

Keep in mind that strawberries don't have a lot of sugar in them. They
contribute flavor but not much fermentable.

The mead fermented out in about 8 weeks. I have no real idea what the
true starting gravity was; it's just not possible to get a useful number
with the fruit in it. It finished at 0.991.

We were serving the mead and getting good reviews at 16 weeks from the
start of fermentation (8 weeks after bottling). After almost a year
from start, the strawberry character is still holding true.


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Strawberry Melomel

Source: Robert Crawford (betel@camelot.bradley.edu)
Mead Lover's Digest #2, 27 September 1992

Ingredients: (for one gallon)

2.5 lbs Clover Honey
1 lb frozen strawberries
acid blend (dosage as per the package's instructions)
grape tannin
1 Campden tablet
pectic enzyme
Montrachet yeast

Procedure:

I boiled and skimmed the honey with nine pints of water, put the
strawberries in a must bag, then poured the hot honey water over the
strawberries, Campden, tannin, and acid blend. A day later I added the
pectic enzyme, and a day later the yeast.
After a week in the primary, I removed the horribly changed strawberries
and siphoned into a secondary. Three weeks later the fermentation had
stopped, and it had cleared. (Honestly -- I've never had the year-long
ferments that others have mentioned.) I stabilized it with potassium
sorbate, sweetened it with table sugar, and bottled it.

Comments:

It's only been two months, but it's already very nice. In fact, it's
half gone :-)
I'm planning another batch, this one with three pounds of honey and two
pounds of strawberries. Needless to say, this one will have more
strawberry flavor and more alcohol...


Chapter 3: Melomel -- Mead with Fruit

Strawberry Spiced Mead

Source: Scott James (scojam@scojam.Auto-trol.COM)
Mead Lover's Digest #18, 16 October 1992

Ingredients:

10 lbs honey (clover honey, processed. From local super market chain)
5 lbs frozen strawberries
2 oz. grated ginger root.
5 gal. water
5 grams dry "Pasteur Champagne yeast"

Procedure:

I let it ferment for 3 months in primary (with fruit) at about 70F, then
bottled, priming with 1 lb honey disolved in about 3 cups boiling water.

Comments:

Now, (6 months later), I'm a half case shy of the nectar and it's
betting better. I had the last bottle after 19 months of aging. Pure
and clear, a slight diacetyl aftertaste. The strawberry was almost
gone, but the ginger apparent and subtle. It had a slight honey
aftertaste. Way over carb. like champagne, use 1/2 lb next time.

I'm thinking of using a Wyeast ale yeast next time. Maybe more honey.
Both have been extremely dry, and I would like to try a sweeter version.

postscript:
I tried the Belgian wyeast strain with lots of success! I used raw
honey from a local supplier, and didn't boil. Add 1/2 tsp. acid blend.
Rack after 1 month at about 65F (Colorado basement), bottle with 2 Cups
honey. Quite sweet, subtle banana aroma (great!). 6 months: has young
'listerine' taste.

next time:
use energizer for faster ferment. Monitor temp to keep below 60F, try
to ferment faster and rack of trub, bottle with 2 Cups honey.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 4: Pyment -- Mead with Grapes

Chablis Pyment

Source: Bill Holman (jwh7k@virginia.edu)
Mead Lovers Digest #171, 10 July 1993

Ingredients:

10 lbs. clover honey
4 lbs. Alexanders premium chablis grape juice concentrate
2 tsp. yeast nutrient, DIFCO
.25 tsp. Irish Moss
10 gms. Lallemand Lalvin EC-1118, Saccharomyces bayanus wine yeast, dry

Procedure:

1) Boil 4 gallons, cut heat to simmer, add honey, grape juice, & Irish
Moss.
2) Simmer 30 minutes skimming foam off top, add yeast nutrient last 5
minutes.
3) With wort chiller cool ~5 gallons for 20 minutes.
4) Pitch at 80F, O.G. 1.095 @ 60F for 5 gallons.
5) Ferment at 72F.
6) Rack to glass secondary within 10 days.

Comments:

Notes: since the grape juice is concentrated, I would up the weight for
grapes a couple of pounds. Any yeast nutrient will work, but the DIFCO
ferments faster with less taste. This batch is still fermenting, but at
the second racking it had a nice balance of honey/grape flavor.


Chapter 4: Pyment -- Mead with Grapes

Pyment

Source: Mark Taratoot (SLNDW@CC.USU.EDU)
Mead Lover's Digest#119, 27 April 1993

Ingredients:

1 gallon local honey (gift from a friend)
10 pounds of concord grapes (from my back yard)
2-3 tsp acid blend
3-5 tsp yeast nutrient
campden tablets
Redstar Champagne yeast

Procedure:

I started this stuff on November 1. We had already had a couple of
frosts, so the grapes were really sweet. When I pitched the yeast I had
three gallons. I used one of the gallons for topping off after each
racking (and the occaisonal sample) and by the time I bottled it I had
less than 2.5 gallons. The stuff was deliceous right out of the
fermenter. After about a month I took an 8 ounce bottle to a party for
all to sample. It really is yummy.

Comments:

My question is, How in the hell am I supposed to let this stuff age when
it is so good even now? What can I expect to happen to the flavors
during the next year or two? I assume it will become drier, which would
probably be an improvement.


Chapter 4: Pyment -- Mead with Grapes

Pyment

Source: Daniel F McConnell
(Daniel_F_McConnell@mailgw.surg.med.umich.edu)
Mead Lovers Digest #171, 10 July 1993

Ingredients:

100 lbs Red Wine grapes crushed
Add Honey to 21 Degrees Brix
Yeast Lab dry mead yeast (M61)-500ml starter

Procedure:

Ferment as wine, racking off 10 gallons of free run and reserving the
pomace. To the pomace add 5 gal. distilled water and 12.5 lb. of honey.
Adjust acid to 0.60. Ferment and press to secondary. Rack at 1 week
and again at 6 months to oak if possible. Bottle the following fall.

Comments:

I make this every year, usually with Chambourcin or Chancellor grapes.
I'm sure it would also work well with white grapes. Taste is that of a
dry red wine with plenty of honey notes to add complexity.


Chapter 4: Pyment -- Mead with Grapes

Sweet Pyment

Source: Daniel F McConnell
(Daniel_F_McConnell@mailgw.surg.med.umich.edu)

Ingredients:

5 Gal Riesling juice (TA=1.10, Bx=19, pH=2.99)
7 lbs Clover Honey
Yeast Lab dry Mead yeast (M61), 1-liter starter

Procedure:

Add the honey to the sulfited grape juice to raise the OG to 29 Bx.
Adjust the acid if needed with acid blend. The following day pitch the
yeast starter and let it ferment at ambient basement temperature leaving
in primary 12 months. Rack off the sediment and bottle when completely
clear.

Comments:

Wonderful sweet sour balance with a tremendous honey/sweet Riesling
aroma. Should be stunning after a few years of bottle age. Taste is
reminiscent of a late harvest Riesling with honey flavors and aroma very
evident.

Specifics:

O.G.: 1.120 (29 Bx)
F.G.: 1.019 (5 Bx)


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 5: Cyser -- Mead with Apples

Apple Mead-pagne

Source: John (The Coyote) Wyllie (SLK6P@cc.usu.edu)

Ingredients:

4 gal Fresh pressed cider (from an orchard)
5 lbs Honey (used local clover/alfalfa)
1 tsp acid blend
Handful chopped raisins, or 1/4 tsp grape tannin
1 Tbsp yeast nutrient
Irish moss (or other clarifier)
2 tsp Pectic Enzyme
4 campden tables (sodium metabisulfite)
Epernay Yeast (or champagne)

Procedure:

Pour the cider to a sterilized 5 gal carboy. Allow it to splash to
aerate. Treat overnight with campden tablets. Crush and predissolve.
Add the raisins to the carboy. Next day heat the honey in < 1 gallon of
water (160 deg 1 hr, or boil if you choose). Add all other ingredients
to the syrup. Add to the fermenter. Use some of the treated juice to
hydrate the yeast, and pitch the starter after it bubbles. After a few
weeks, rack to a secondary. Add more finings if needed (isinglass is
good). Top up with juice, or honey syrup. I've generally liked to let
cysers, and ciders age for a pretty long time. Most have been in
fermenters for at least 4 months. You can bottle still, or sparkling.
Use 1/2 to 3/4 cup corn sugar and champagne bottles for a nice sparkle.
These have taken a long time to gain a good bubble level. They have
been stored cold (55). But well worth the wait!

Comments:

A potent and pleasing fruity wine. Once mature, a clear, bubbly
champagne-like mead. My dad really enjoyed this one, and he usually
drinks nicer wines. I was flattered. He kept grabbing the bottle at
dinner! :)
If you rack several times you can eliminate most of the sediment, and
only have a fine layer in the bottle. I prefer to keep the priming
down, because they seem to continue fermenting slowly for a long time.
I've had a batch carbonate w/o priming! So much for a still wine! You
could stabilize and sweeten to taste if you choose. Bottling with teas
is a nice addition. I've used cinnamon, but I'd bet ginger, or a tad of
clove would be nice.

Specifics:

OG: ~1.070 Will vary depending on source of cider.
FG: 1.000.


Chapter 5: Cyser -- Mead with Apples

Dangerous Cyser

Source: Chuck Cox (chuck@synchro.com)
Mead Lover's Digest #5, 1 October 1992

Ingredients (7 gallons):

10 lb clover honey
10 lb wildflower honey
5+ gallons cider
6 tablets Campden/Metabisulphate
Ale Yeast

Procedure:

Mix everything except the yeast.
Let sit in loosely covered fermenter for 24 hours. Add yeast.
Rack to secondary when fermentation slows. Rack to keg when still.
Force carbonate if desired.
Condition for as long as you can stand it.
Drink liberally.
Fall over.

Comments:

These days I am not adding the Campden tablets. That step is optional.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 6: Other

Honey-Maple Mead

Source: Joseph Nathan Hall (joseph%joebloe@uunet.uu.net)
Mead Lover's Digest #7, 3 October 1992

Ingredients:

(recipe for 2 gallons or maybe a little more)
2 quarts maple syrup (that hurt$, as Charlie Papazian says)
2 to 2-1/2 lbs light honey (I used clover)
acid to taste--I think I used a little less than 1 tsp of acid blend for
this batch.
Pasteur Champagne yeast

Procedure:

Bring honey and maple syrup to boil in enough water to liquefy. Add acid
and a bit of nutrient if desired. (I don't think you *need* yeast
nutrient--the maple syrup seems to have the necessary stuff in it.) Skim
for a minute or two, enjoying the flavor of the yummy foamy stuff. :-)
Cool. Then add water to make a 1.120 SG must. Pitch with working Pasteur
Champagne yeast. Prepare for a moderately vigorous fermentation. Rack
off after primary fermentation, and once again if it isn't clear in a
few more weeks. I topped off the gallon jugs with boiled water after the
first racking--that seemed to help settle the yeast.

Both batches I made this summer (the first with about half this much
syrup) fermented out to almost exactly 1.000. They fermented and cleared
at 70-72F in 6-8 weeks.

The result (that's what you've been waiting for): a beautiful, crystal-
clear brilliant straw-colored liquid, slightly sweet, with a monster
alcohol palate and strong bourbon notes. Smoooooth.

Then, for a stellar, absolutely world-class result, take the three month
old young mead and prime with a small quantity of fresh yeast (1/4 pack
or less) and about 1.25 x (or perhaps a little more) what you consider a
normal dose of sugar for beer. Bottle quickly and carefully, and let
age for at least 6 months, turning and shaking gently a few times during
the first weeks.

The sparkling honey-maple mead will wow absolutely anyone. Serve it ice
cold in your best champagne flutes. I rather like the still mead on the
rocks. Is this heresy?


Chapter 6: Other

Maple Mead

Source: RON.admin@admin.creol.ucf.edu (RON)
From: Mead Lover's Digest #269 22 February 1994

Ingredients:

6 lb Canadian Honey
32 oz container of Canadian Grade A Dark Amber Maple Syrup
1 tsp. gypsum
3/4 tsp. pectin
1 tsp. yeast nutrient
1 tsp. table salt
1 tsp. acid blend
1 pkg. M&F ale yeast in 2 cup wort - yeast starter
1 oz. Saaz cube hops (1/2 boil, 1/2 fin)

Procedure:

Added gypsum and salt to 1.5 gal filtered water, boiled, removed from
heat, added honey and maple syrup, back to heat, hops added (10 min),
pectin, yeast nutrient, acid blend added (25 min), yeast starter
started, boiling well, skimmed off albumin, heat off and fin hops(45
min), chilled in ice bath (~30min), put in 6 gal carboy, pitched yeast
and enough water to make 5.5 gal. Racked in 2 weeks. Bottled 10 weeks
later w/ 1/3 cup corn sugar + 1/2 cup Florida Orange Blossom Honey.

Comments:

3 weeks after bottling had a dry - light "Bristol Cream" taste. Now has
a great light mead flavor with a tangy maplish dry undertone.

Now I think 10 lbs of honey, light boiling and a different yeast to
sweeten it up a bit and would make for a more flavorful maple mead.

Specifics:
OG: 1.080
FG: 1.005


Chapter 6: Other

Simha

Source: Gary Shea (shea@cs.ukans.edu)
Mead Lover's Digest #241, 7 December 1993

Ingredients (for 1 gallon):

1 cup white sugar
1 cup brown sugar
water to make a gallon
two lemons
yeast

Procedure:

Combine sugars, add water to make 1 gallon, boil. Squeeze two lemons
into the mix and throw them in, quartered. When it's cooled enough add
1/8 tsp of yeast (I used bread yeast). Allow to ferment for a day or
two at ~65-70F. Bottle, adding a few raisins and a tsp of sugar to each
bottle. Allow to sit at ~65-70F until the raisins are sitting at the
top (< 1 day). Refrigerate or place in quite cool place

Comments:

Drink in a couple weeks. So far I have only done one batch and I drank
it over the course of two weeks. It keeps getting better and better.
Plastic Calistoga bottles are what I've been using, they work great and
seem to have no flavor.

This is a Finnish drink called 'sima' or maybe 'simha', made only for
May Day celebrations. The recipes for it that I've seen (and made) are
all pretty much like this.


Chapter 6: Other

Honey Bucket Bracket

Source: Richard B. Webb
Mead Lover's Digest #313, 30 May 1994

Ingredients (for 8 gallons):

25 lbs Honey Malt
39 grams Saaz hop flowers
130 grams shredded ginger root
1 tbl Irish Moss
12 lbs. blackberry honey
1 tbl acid blend
Red Star Montrachet dry yeast

Procedure:

It was a dark and stormy New Year's Eve. 25 lbs of Honey Malt (17
degreesL) were mashed at 156 degrees until starch test showed complete
saccrification. The mash was sparged at 164 degrees. This wort was
brought to a boil. The color contribution of this malt was estimated at
approximately 60 degrees SRM. 39 grams of Saaz hop flowers (at 6.0%
acid) was added for a proposed 60 minute boil. 130 grams of shredded
ginger root was added for a proposed 15 minute boil. 1 TBL of Irish
Moss was added for a proposed 10 minute boil.

At the end of the 60 minutes, I added 12 lbs of Schneider's blackberry
honey. Heat continued, even though the wort wasn't boiling. After 25
minutes, the boil resumed, and I added 1 TBL of acid blend. After
another 10 minutes of boil, the heat was turned off, the imersion cooler
was inserted, and cooling was begun.

I used Red Star Montrachet dry yeast in this batch. The first package
was added when the wort was still too hot (oops!), so another package
was added later, before obvious signs of fermentation had begun.

All of the above yielded about 8 gallons of wort, whose specific gravity
was 1.112. The actual hopping rate was estimated at 22 IBU, not
including the acid added. The final gravity reading was 1.052, with the
resulting alcohol at approximately 6.4%.

Racking occured on 13 Jan 94. Bottling took place on 25 Jan 94, giving
just under one month of fermenting. Priming sugar consisted of 1/2 cup
corn sugar, 2 cups of water, and 1 tsp ascorbic acid.

Never having had a Bracket/Braggot before, the taste was rather
interesting. It is an exceedingly sweet beer, not mead-ish at all!

Because I used Honey malt, I called this brew Honey Bucket Bracket.
Dark as the night, and thicker than sin!

Comments:

Michael Hall, who was one of the judges at the Duke's of Ale Spring
Thing competition held recently in Albuquerque, New Mexico, wanted the
recipe of the mead that I had entered. It took honors for the best mead
of the competition. This is my attempt at supplying the recipe.

It's not actually a mead, but something called a bracket or braggot.
The American Mead Association is of very little use in supplying a
definition of the style, only saying that the mix has to have at least
half of its fermentables comming from the added honey.

The idea was to make a batch of beer and a batch of mead and slam the
two together. Thus a beer was made (at a very low hopping rate), and a
lot of honey was added to it.

Judges comments:
Michael Hall gave it 42 points.
Good honey expression! Roasted malt comes throught too! Fairly clear,
good head retention. Good honey taste. Good roasted malt taste. Nice
complex taste. This is the most interesting mead we've tasted! Nice
balance of mead and beer. Very good idea! I could drink a lot of this
(slowly...) on a winter night.

Bill Terborg gave it 45 points.
Complex nose. Very nice. Great color and very clear. Very nice -
complex, malt strong, yet honey in background. Good balance - sweet &
acid. Great mead! Publish the recipe so we can all enjoy!

William deVries gave it 37 points.
Good solid honey/malt aroma. Nicely balanced, almost smoky. Honey exudes
throughout, bitter component masks the modifying sweetness, but not too
badly. Malt flavor aids the complexity. Nice even flavors cause a
pleasant and lasting impression.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Bibliography

Acton, Bryan, and Peter Duncan (1984) Making Mead. G.W. Kent, Inc.,
3691 Morgan Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48108, USA. ISBN 0-900841-07-9.
~$8.95.
An uneven book, at best. They approach the subject from a winemaking
point of view: everything is loaded up with sulfites, citric acid and
tannin mixtures. The ideas that they put forth in the sections on the
history of meadmaking are downright odd, and sometimes plain wrong. But
they're mostly harmless, and there are lots of recipes, and they use a
wide variety of fruits. Even if you don't ever intend to use sulfites,
this book is a good way to get an idea of how much fruit or juice to
use in brewing a particular mead.

Gayre, Lt. Col. Robert (1986) Brewing Mead: Wassail in Mazers of Mead.
Brewers Publications, Boulder, Colorado.

Morse, Roger A. (1980) Making Mead (Honey Wine). Wicwas Press,
Ithaca, NY.

Papazian, Charlie (1991) The New Complete Joy of Homebrewing. Avon
Books, New York. $11.00. ISBN 0-380-76366-4.
This is the well-known general book on how to brew. Appendix 5 covers
mead, and serves as a pretty good introduction to the topic. It also
includes three recipes.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Appendix 1: Mead Yeast Starter

Mead Yeast Starter

Source: Joyce Miller jmiller@genome.wi.mit.edu

Ingredients (makes 1/2 gallon):

1 cup honey
1 cup cane sugar
1 tsp lemon juice
1/4 tsp yeast nutrient (or however much your directions call for)
6-2/3 cups water

Procedure:

Bring all of the ingredients to a boil, then shut off & let sit
(covered) 20-30 minutes to pasteurize. Force cool in a cold water bath,
if you wish. Pour dry yeast into a sanitized 1/2-gallon container.
When the starter solution has cooled to below 80F (27C), pour it on top
of the dry yeast. Shake & swirl to dissolve the yeast. Attach an
airlock. When the airlock shows regular activity, it's time to brew.
Anywhere from 2-4 cups of active starter can be added to 5 gallons of
mead must. Swirl the starter before "inoculating" your mead must so as
to get the yeast into suspension.

Comments:

I have used this recipe for starting beer, wine, and champagne yeasts,
and it seems to be very good for acclimating the yeast to the "mead
environment".

A half gallon is quite a bit of starter, so it might be a good idea to
cut the recipe in half. I only make the full amount when I plan to brew
several batches of mead. Since yeast ferments honey relatively slowly,
you can easily use up a batch of the starter on several batches made
across 2-3 weeks. The starter will just keep on bubbling in between
your brewing sessions! If you want to keep it going even longer, you
can pour off half the starter, and add a few cups of fresh must for the
yeast to chew on.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Appendix 2: Honey and Maple Syrup Tables

Honey Table
Courtesy of John Gorman

Volume (quarts and cups) of Honey to add to 5 Gallons to Achieve a
Particular Specific Gravity:

S. G. 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009
----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
1.000 0q,0c 0q,0c 0q,0c 0q,1c 0q,1c 0q,1c 0q,1c 0q,1c 0q,1c 0q,2c
1.010 0q,2c 0q,2c 0q,2c 0q,2c 0q,3c 0q,3c 0q,3c 0q,3c 0q,3c 0q,3c
1.020 1q,0c 1q,0c 1q,0c 1q,0c 1q,0c 1q,0c 1q,1c 1q,1c 1q,1c 1q,1c
1.030 1q,1c 1q,2c 1q,2c 1q,2c 1q,2c 1q,2c 1q,2c 1q,3c 1q,3c 1q,3c
1.040 1q,3c 1q,3c 2q,0c 2q,0c 2q,0c 2q,0c 2q,0c 2q,0c 2q,1c 2q,1c
1.050 2q,1c 2q,1c 2q,1c 2q,2c 2q,2c 2q,2c 2q,2c 2q,2c 2q,2c 2q,3c
1.060 2q,3c 2q,3c 2q,3c 2q,3c 2q,3c 3q,0c 3q,0c 3q,0c 3q,0c 3q,0c
1.070 3q,1c 3q,1c 3q,1c 3q,1c 3q,1c 3q,1c 3q,2c 3q,2c 3q,2c 3q,2c
1.080 3q,2c 3q,3c 3q,3c 3q,3c 3q,3c 3q,3c 3q,3c 4q,0c 4q,0c 4q,0c
1.090 4q,0c 4q,0c 4q,1c 4q,1c 4q,1c 4q,1c 4q,1c 4q,1c 4q,2c 4q,2c
1.100 4q,2c 4q,2c 4q,2c 4q,2c 4q,3c 4q,3c 4q,3c 4q,3c 4q,3c 5q,0c
1.110 5q,0c 5q,0c 5q,0c 5q,0c 5q,0c 5q,1c 5q,1c 5q,1c 5q,1c 5q,1c
1.120 5q,2c 5q,2c 5q,2c 5q,2c 5q,2c 5q,2c 5q,3c 5q,3c 5q,3c 5q,3c
1.130 5q,3c 6q,0c 6q,0c 6q,0c 6q,0c 6q,0c 6q,0c 6q,1c 6q,1c 6q,1c
1.140 6q,1c 6q,1c 6q,1c 6q,2c 6q,2c 6q,2c 6q,2c 6q,2c 6q,3c 6q,3c
1.150 6q,3c 6q,3c 6q,3c 6q,3c 7q,0c 7q,0c 7q,0c 7q,0c 7q,0c 7q,1c

Volume (quarts and cups) of Honey to add to 1 Gallon to Achieve a
Particular Specific Gravity:

S. G. 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009
----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
1.000 0c,0o 0c,0o 0c,1o 0c,1o 0c,1o 0c,1o 0c,2o 0c,2o 0c,2o 0c,3o
1.010 0c,3o 0c,3o 0c,3o 0c,4o 0c,4o 0c,4o 0c,5o 0c,5o 0c,5o 0c,5o
1.020 0c,6o 0c,6o 0c,6o 0c,7o 0c,7o 0c,7o 0c,7o 1c,0o 1c,0o 1c,0o
1.030 1c,1o 1c,1o 1c,1o 1c,1o 1c,2o 1c,2o 1c,2o 1c,3o 1c,3o 1c,3o
1.040 1c,3o 1c,4o 1c,4o 1c,4o 1c,5o 1c,5o 1c,5o 1c,5o 1c,6o 1c,6o
1.050 1c,6o 1c,7o 1c,7o 1c,7o 2c,0o 2c,0o 2c,0o 2c,0o 2c,1o 2c,1o
1.060 2c,1o 2c,2o 2c,2o 2c,2o 2c,2o 2c,3o 2c,3o 2c,3o 2c,4o 2c,4o
1.070 2c,4o 2c,4o 2c,5o 2c,5o 2c,5o 2c,6o 2c,6o 2c,6o 2c,6o 2c,7o
1.080 2c,7o 2c,7o 3c,0o 3c,0o 3c,0o 3c,0o 3c,1o 3c,1o 3c,1o 3c,2o
1.090 3c,2o 3c,2o 3c,2o 3c,3o 3c,3o 3c,3o 3c,4o 3c,4o 3c,4o 3c,4o
1.100 3c,5o 3c,5o 3c,5o 3c,6o 3c,6o 3c,6o 3c,6o 3c,7o 3c,7o 3c,7o
1.110 4c,0o 4c,0o 4c,0o 4c,0o 4c,1o 4c,1o 4c,1o 4c,2o 4c,2o 4c,2o
1.120 4c,2o 4c,3o 4c,3o 4c,3o 4c,4o 4c,4o 4c,4o 4c,4o 4c,5o 4c,5o
1.130 4c,5o 4c,6o 4c,6o 4c,6o 4c,6o 4c,7o 4c,7o 4c,7o 5c,0o 5c,0o
1.140 5c,0o 5c,0o 5c,1o 5c,1o 5c,1o 5c,2o 5c,2o 5c,2o 5c,2o 5c,3o
1.150 5c,3o 5c,3o 5c,4o 5c,4o 5c,4o 5c,5o 5c,5o 5c,5o 5c,5o 5c,6o

Note: q = quarts, c = cups, o = fluid ounces


Appendix 2: Honey and Maple Syrup Tables

Maple Syrup Table
Courtesy of John Gorman

Volume (quarts and cups) of Maple Syrup to add to 5 Gallons to Achieve a
Particular Specific Gravity:

S. G. 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009
----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
1.000 0q,0c 0q,0c 0q,0c 0q,1c 0q,1c 0q,1c 0q,1c 0q,2c 0q,2c 0q,2c
1.010 0q,2c 0q,3c 0q,3c 0q,3c 0q,3c 1q,0c 1q,0c 1q,0c 1q,0c 1q,1c
1.020 1q,1c 1q,1c 1q,1c 1q,2c 1q,2c 1q,2c 1q,2c 1q,3c 1q,3c 1q,3c
1.030 1q,3c 2q,0c 2q,0c 2q,0c 2q,0c 2q,1c 2q,1c 2q,1c 2q,1c 2q,2c
1.040 2q,2c 2q,2c 2q,2c 2q,3c 2q,3c 2q,3c 2q,3c 3q,0c 3q,0c 3q,0c
1.050 3q,0c 3q,1c 3q,1c 3q,1c 3q,1c 3q,2c 3q,2c 3q,2c 3q,2c 3q,3c
1.060 3q,3c 3q,3c 3q,3c 3q,3c 4q,0c 4q,0c 4q,0c 4q,0c 4q,1c 4q,1c
1.070 4q,1c 4q,1c 4q,2c 4q,2c 4q,2c 4q,2c 4q,3c 4q,3c 4q,3c 4q,3c
1.080 5q,0c 5q,0c 5q,0c 5q,0c 5q,1c 5q,1c 5q,1c 5q,1c 5q,2c 5q,2c
1.090 5q,2c 5q,2c 5q,3c 5q,3c 5q,3c 5q,3c 6q,0c 6q,0c 6q,0c 6q,0c
1.100 6q,1c 6q,1c 6q,1c 6q,1c 6q,2c 6q,2c 6q,2c 6q,2c 6q,3c 6q,3c
1.110 6q,3c 6q,3c 7q,0c 7q,0c 7q,0c 7q,0c 7q,1c 7q,1c 7q,1c 7q,1c
1.120 7q,2c 7q,2c 7q,2c 7q,2c 7q,2c 7q,3c 7q,3c 7q,3c 7q,3c 8q,0c
1.130 8q,0c 8q,0c 8q,0c 8q,1c 8q,1c 8q,1c 8q,1c 8q,2c 8q,2c 8q,2c
1.140 8q,2c 8q,3c 8q,3c 8q,3c 8q,3c 9q,0c 9q,0c 9q,0c 9q,0c 9q,1c
1.150 9q,1c 9q,1c 9q,1c 9q,2c 9q,2c 9q,2c 9q,2c 9q,3c 9q,3c 9q,3c

Volume (quarts and cups) of Maple Syrup to add to 1 Gallon to Achieve a
Particular Specific Gravity:

S. G. 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009
----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
1.000 0c,0o 0c,0o 0c,1o 0c,1o 0c,2o 0c,2o 0c,2o 0c,3o 0c,3o 0c,4o
1.010 0c,4o 0c,4o 0c,5o 0c,5o 0c,6o 0c,6o 0c,6o 0c,7o 0c,7o 0c,7o
1.020 1c,0o 1c,0o 1c,1o 1c,1o 1c,1o 1c,2o 1c,2o 1c,3o 1c,3o 1c,3o
1.030 1c,4o 1c,4o 1c,5o 1c,5o 1c,5o 1c,6o 1c,6o 1c,7o 1c,7o 1c,7o
1.040 2c,0o 2c,0o 2c,1o 2c,1o 2c,1o 2c,2o 2c,2o 2c,2o 2c,3o 2c,3o
1.050 2c,4o 2c,4o 2c,4o 2c,5o 2c,5o 2c,6o 2c,6o 2c,6o 2c,7o 2c,7o
1.060 3c,0o 3c,0o 3c,0o 3c,1o 3c,1o 3c,2o 3c,2o 3c,2o 3c,3o 3c,3o
1.070 3c,4o 3c,4o 3c,4o 3c,5o 3c,5o 3c,6o 3c,6o 3c,6o 3c,7o 3c,7o
1.080 3c,7o 4c,0o 4c,0o 4c,1o 4c,1o 4c,1o 4c,2o 4c,2o 4c,3o 4c,3o
1.090 4c,3o 4c,4o 4c,4o 4c,5o 4c,5o 4c,5o 4c,6o 4c,6o 4c,7o 4c,7o
1.100 4c,7o 5c,0o 5c,0o 5c,1o 5c,1o 5c,1o 5c,2o 5c,2o 5c,2o 5c,3o
1.110 5c,3o 5c,4o 5c,4o 5c,4o 5c,5o 5c,5o 5c,6o 5c,6o 5c,6o 5c,7o
1.120 5c,7o 6c,0o 6c,0o 6c,0o 6c,1o 6c,1o 6c,2o 6c,2o 6c,2o 6c,3o
1.130 6c,3o 6c,4o 6c,4o 6c,4o 6c,5o 6c,5o 6c,6o 6c,6o 6c,6o 6c,7o
1.140 6c,7o 6c,7o 7c,0o 7c,0o 7c,1o 7c,1o 7c,1o 7c,2o 7c,2o 7c,3o
1.150 7c,3o 7c,3o 7c,4o 7c,4o 7c,5o 7c,5o 7c,5o 7c,6o 7c,6o 7c,7o

Note: q = quarts, c = cups, o = fluid ounces


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Appendix 3: Potential Alcohol Table


Percent Alcohol Table
Courtesy of John Gorman

Potential Alcohol by Volume:
(D.G. = Difference in Gravity = Original Gravity - Final Gravity)

D. G. 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009
----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
1.000 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.4% 0.5% 0.6% 0.8% 0.9% 1.0% 1.2%
1.010 1.3% 1.4% 1.6% 1.7% 1.8% 2.0% 2.1% 2.2% 2.4% 2.5%
1.020 2.6% 2.7% 2.9% 3.0% 3.1% 3.3% 3.4% 3.5% 3.7% 3.8%
1.030 3.9% 4.0% 4.2% 4.3% 4.4% 4.6% 4.7% 4.8% 5.0% 5.1%
1.040 5.2% 5.4% 5.5% 5.6% 5.8% 5.9% 6.0% 6.1% 6.3% 6.4%
1.050 6.5% 6.7% 6.8% 6.9% 7.1% 7.2% 7.3% 7.4% 7.6% 7.7%
1.060 7.8% 8.0% 8.1% 8.2% 8.4% 8.5% 8.6% 8.8% 8.9% 9.0%
1.070 9.2% 9.3% 9.4% 9.5% 9.7% 9.8% 9.9% 10.1% 10.2% 10.3%
1.080 10.5% 10.6% 10.7% 10.8% 11.0% 11.1% 11.2% 11.4% 11.5% 11.6%
1.090 11.8% 11.9% 12.0% 12.2% 12.3% 12.4% 12.6% 12.7% 12.8% 12.9%
1.100 13.1% 13.2% 13.3% 13.5% 13.6% 13.7% 13.9% 14.0% 14.1% 14.2%
1.110 14.4% 14.5% 14.6% 14.8% 14.9% 15.0% 15.2% 15.3% 15.4% 15.6%
1.120 15.7% 15.8% 16.0% 16.1% 16.2% 16.3% 16.5% 16.6% 16.7% 16.9%
1.130 17.0% 17.1% 17.3% 17.4% 17.5% 17.6% 17.8% 17.9% 18.0% 18.2%
1.140 18.3% 18.4% 18.6% 18.7% 18.8% 19.0% 19.1% 19.2% 19.4% 19.5%
1.150 19.6% 19.8% 19.9% 20.0% 20.1% 20.3% 20.4% 20.5% 20.7% 20.8%


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Appendix 4: Clarifying Meads

How to Clarify Mead with Bentonite

by John Gorman (john@rsi.com)


1) What is Bentonite?

Bentonite is pure powdered clay and is used in wine and mead making. It
is inert and tasteless. You can get it at your local homebrew shop or by
mail order quite inexpensively.

Bentonite is used during racking to flocculate out the leftover yeast so
that it settles to the bottom, leaving crystal clear mead behind. The
clay particles are tiny flat sheets of mineral with minute electric
charges sticking out at the edges. These charges attract the yeast
cells, which then stick together in visible clumps that settle out
rapidly.

The time to bentonite is any time after active bubbling ceases. If you
bentonite while there is still fermentation activity, the yeast that
settles to the bottom will keep bubbling and re-cloud the mead. If you
use a yeast nutrient, fermentation will proceed rapidly and cease in a
month or so. By using bentonite, your mead will be clear and ready to
bottle in a few days, freeing your carboy for more mead!

2) Bentonite Preparation

Use 1/2 tsp bentonite per gallon of mead to be clarified. To prepare
the bentonite for 5 gallons, boil 1 cup of water in a small saucepan.
Pre-measure 2 1/2 tsp of bentonite granules into a small bowl. As the
water boils, SLOWLY sprinkle in the bentonite, stirring occasionally
with a fork.

If you sprinkle it in too fast, the granules will stick together as they
absorb water, making large thick clots, which is not what you want. If
that happens, just throw it out and try again.

If you sprinkle just right into the boiling water, it will stay soupy.
Take it off of the heat and store covered for 24 hours while the clay
goes completely into suspension.

3) Racking Procedure

Fill a clean pot with water, and bring it to a rolling boil for 10
minutes to drive off all of the oxygen. This water will be used after
racking to fill up the head space. If you leave a head space after
racking, the oxygen in the head space air will get into the mead and
produce flat off flavors.

Stir the bentonite mixture with a fork to get it all into suspension.
Pour the bentonite mixture into the second (empty) carboy. Then rack
from the first carboy into the second. Avoid splashing, which will
oxygenate the mead. Top off the head space with the boiled water. Stir
the mixture thoroughly without splashing by rotating your J-tube in the
carboy.

The bentonite will bind with the yeast into visible particles and
flocculate out fairly quickly. After two days or so, it will all be
resting in the bottom 1/2 inch of the carboy.

Sometimes there is so much yeast in a mead that the first bentonite
cannot flocculate out all of the yeast. In that case, do it again. The
result will be crystal clear.


How to Clarify Mead with Gelatin

by Joyce Miller (jmiller@genome.wi.mit.edu)


Clarifying mead with gelatin is similar to using bentonite. Powdered
unflavored gelatin is available in most grocery stores (the Knox brand
is probably the most widely known). I generally dissolve a packet of
the powder into 1 cup of cold water in a pot. Heat this on the stove,
swirling gently, until it's all dissolved. Cover it and let it sit 20
minutes to pasteurize it. Warning: do *NOT* let this stuff boil over!
It's very difficult to clean up!

Put the pot somewhere where you can grab it easily, and start siphoning
your mead into an empty carboy. When there's a gallon or so in the new
carboy, take the gelatin solution, and slowly drizzle it in (if you dump
it directly into the empty carboy, it will just coagulate on the bottom
in a useless lump). Finish siphoning, and stir if necessary to
distribute the gelatin evenly throughout the carboy.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Appendix 5: Units of Measure and Miscellaneous Information


How to use these tables:

1: Read from the top down to find out how many "X" units there are
in "Y". For example, to find out how many cups there are in a barrel,
find the "cups" column, and read down until you reach the "barrels" row,
and you'll find that there are 496 cups in a barrel.
2: To convert back and forth between units, "divide down and
multiply across". Find the number at the intersection of the row and
column of the two units you're interested in. If you're reading down a
column to get to that number, you'll have to divide by that number to
convert to the other unit. If you find yourself reading across, you'll
have to multiply.
For example, to convert from cups to barrels, you'll be reading
down the cups column to get to barrels, so take the number of cups you
have and divide by 496 to get barrels. To convert from barrels to cups,
read from barrels across to cups, and multiply the number of barrels by
496 to get cups.

*Note* The units are listed in the leftmost column, and their
abbreviations are listed across the top row of each table.


Liquid (Volume) Measure Equivalents:

U.S. Measures: tsp tbl fl.oz. c pt qt gal bbl.
teaspoon
tablespoons 3
fluid ounces 6 2
cups 48 16 8
pints 96 32 16 2
quarts 192 64 32 4 2
gallons 768 256 128 16 8 4
barrels 23808 7936 3968 496 248 124 31

Metric: ml cl dl l dal hl
milliliters
centiliters 10
deciliters 100 10
liters 1000 100 10
dekaliters 10000 1000 100 10
hectoliters 100000 10000 1000 100 10

*Note* A cubic centimeter (cc) is the same as 1 milliliter (ml).

U.S. / Metric Conversions:

ml cl dl l dal hl
teaspoon 4.93 0.49 0.05 0.005 0.0005 0.00005
tablespoons 14.79 1.48 0.15 0.01 0.001 0.0001
fluid ounces 29.57 2.96 0.30 0.03 0.003 0.0003
cups 236.59 23.66 2.37 0.24 0.02 0.002
pints 473.18 47.32 4.73 0.47 0.05 0.005
quarts 946.35 94.64 9.46 0.95 0.09 0.009
gallons 3785.41 378.54 37.85 3.79 0.38 0.03
barrels 117377.71 11737.77 1173.78 117.38 11.74 1.17

quarts / 1.057 = liters
gallons x 3.7854 = liters

U.S. / English Conversions:

U.S. U.S. U.S. U.S. U.S.
tsp. tbl. cup pint gal.
Eng. teaspoon 1.2500 0.417 0.026 0.013 0.002
Eng. tablespoon 3.7500 1.250 0.078 0.039 0.005
Eng. cup ("gill") 57.600 19.20 1.200 0.600 0.075
Eng. pint 115.20 38.40 2.400 1.200 0.150
Eng. gallon 932.60 307.2 19.20 9.600 1.200


Dry Measure Equivalents:

U.S. Measures: pt qt peck
pint
quart 2
peck 16 8
bushel 64 32 4


Weight Measure Equivalents:

U.S. Measures: drams oz. lb.
ounces 16
pounds 256 16

Metric: mg g kg
milligrams
grams 1000
kilograms 1000000 1000

U.S. / Metric Conversions:

ounces pounds
grams 0.03527 0.0022
kilograms 35.2736 2.2046

kilograms x 2.2046 = pounds
pounds / 2.2046 = kilograms

U.S. / English Conversions:

U.S. U.S.
ounces pounds
Eng. ounces 1 0.063
Eng. pounds 16 1


Temperature Conversions:

Degrees Centigrade = 5/9 x (Degrees Fahrenheit - 32)
Degrees Fahrenheit = (Degrees Centigrade x 9/5) + 32


Miscellaneous Factoids:

A gallon of honey weighs about 12 pounds.
Water weighs 8.3454 pounds per gallon (U.S. units).
Pasteurization: hold at 160 degrees Fahrenheit for 15 - 30 minutes.

U.S. standard beer bottles: 12 fl. oz.
U.S. large beer bottles: 22 fl. oz.
Grolsch & Jubel swing-tops: 1 pint (16 fl. oz.)
Fischer swing-tops: large: 22 fl. oz.
small: 11.5 fl. oz
5-gallons: 640 fl. oz.
1 gallon: 128 fl. oz.


Formula to Compute Target Starting Gravity:

V x (Gs - 1)
h = ---------------
(Gh - 1)

where:
h = the total volume of honey required to achieve the desired starting
gravity,
V = the total final volume (5 for a 5-gallon batch, etc.),
Gs = desired starting gravity,
Gh = the specific gravity of your sweetener (honey's is 1.445)

For example:
If you wanted a 5 gallon batch with a starting gravity of 1.120, the
formula would look like:

h = 5 gallons x (1.120 - 1) / (1.445 - 1)
= (5 x 0.12) / (0.445) = 0.60 / 0.445 = 1.35 gallons

To get the required amount of honey in pints, just substitute 40 pints
for the 5 gallons.




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